VOLUME XI - FALL 2008
Published by the VIRGINIA CONSORTIUM OF ASIAN STUDIES
REPLACING THE OCCASIONAL PAPERS OF THE VIRGINIA CONSORTIUM OF ASIAN STUDIES
THE VIRGINIA CONSORTIUM OF ASIAN STUDIES (VCAS)
VCAS is a scholarly, nonprofit and academic organization designed to promote the study of Asia throughout Virginia and the Southeast. VCAS promotes conferences, this annual journal and workshops for teachers, scholars, students and the public.
VCAS: OFFICERS FOR 2008-09
President: Michael Smitka, Washington & Lee
Vice-President: Len Schoppa, University of Virginia
Secretary-Treasurer: Mark Wilkinson, Virginia Military Institute
Past Presidents: Ed Pratt, College of William & Mary; Elizabeth Freund Larus, Mary Washington College; Marge Klayton-Mi, Mary Washington College; Tomoko Hamada, College of William & Mary, Daniel Metraux, Mary Baldwin College and others
Editor of THE VIRGINIA REVIEW OF ASIAN STUDIES: Daniel A. Métraux, Mary Baldwin College
Associate Editor: James Wolf Yoxall, Mary Baldwin College
Board of Editors:
Jan Bardsley, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Thomas Burkman, SUNY Buffalo
Paul Rodell, Georgia Southern University
Gilbert W. Roy, University of Virginia
Mike Smitka, Washington & Lee University
THE VIRGINIA REVIEW OF ASIAN STUDIES (VRAS) is an annual VCAS publication appearing in the Fall semester designed to promote advanced scholarship on Asia in Virginia and the Southeast. VCAS invites material on any aspect of Asian Studies for editorial review. Because VCAS especially encourages research and study on Asia in the classroom, work from graduate or advanced undergraduate students is very welcome. Faculty are also invited to submit high quality papers by advanced students. Scholars are especially encouraged to submit research or work “in progress” for the sake of eliciting comments from colleagues with the full understanding that improved versions of that work may be published elsewhere later.
SEND SUBMISSIONS FOR EDITORIAL CONSIDERATION FOR VOLUME XII (2009) by 1 June 2009 to: Daniel A. Metraux, Dept. of Asian Studies, Mary Baldwin College, Staunton, VA 24401. Send electronic submissions to: dmetraux @gmail.com and dmetraux @mbc.edu. Each article/review © its author. No reproduction of any article without author’s written permission. VRAS replaces The Occasional Papers of the Virginia Consortium of Asian Studies (Vol. 1-6). VRAS is on line at vcas.wlu.edu A limited hard copy edition is also produced.