Understanding American Foreign Policy
Managing Nuclear Proliferation: the U.S.-North Korean "Agreed Framework" of 1994
Political Science 128: U.S. Foreign Policy
Mary Baldwin College, Staunton VA 24401
by Prof. Gordon L. Bowen, Ph.D.
Complete Text of
Agreed Framework Between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
October 21, 1994
Delegations of the Governments of the United States of America (U.S.) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) held talks in Geneva from September 23 to October 17, 1994, to negotiate an overall resolution of the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula.
Both sides reaffirmed the importance of attaining the objectives contained in the August 12, 1994 Agreed Statement between the U.S. and the DPRK and upholding the principles of the June 11, 1993 Joint Statement of the U.S. and the DPRK to achieve peace and security on a nuclear-free Korean peninsula. The U.S. and the DPRK decided to take the following actions for the resolution of the nuclear issue:
I. Both sides will cooperate to replace the DPRK's graphite-moderated reactors and related facilities with light-water
reactor (LWR) power plants.
1) In accordance with the October 20, 1994 letter of assurance from the U.S. President, the U.S. will undertake to make arrangements for the provision to the DPRK of a LWR project with a total generating capacity of approximately 2,000 MW(e) by a target date of 2003.
-- The U.S. will organize under its leadership an international consortium to finance and supply the LWR project to
be provided to the DPRK. The U.S., representing the international consortium, will serve as the principal point of
contact with the DPRK for the LWR project.
-- The U.S., representing the consortium, will make best efforts to secure the conclusion of a supply contract with the DPRK within six months of the date of this Document for the provision of the LWR project. Contract talks will begin as soon as possible after the date of this Document.
-- As necessary, the U.S. and the DPRK will conclude a bilateral agreement for cooperation in the field of peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
2) In accordance with the October 20, 1994 letter of assurance from the U.S. President, the U.S., representing the consortium, will make arrangements to offset the energy foregone due to the freeze of the DPRK's graphite-moderated reactors and related facilities, pending completion of the first LWR unit.
-- Alternative energy will be provided in the form of heavy oil for heating and electricity production.
-- Deliveries of heavy oil will begin within three months of the date of this Document and will reach a rate of 500,000 tons annually, in accordance with an agreed schedule of deliveries.
3) Upon receipt of U.S. assurances for the provision of LWR's and for arrangements for interim energy alternatives, the DPRK will freeze its graphite-moderated reactors and related facilities and will eventually dismantle these reactors and related facilities.
-- The freeze on the DPRK's graphite-moderated reactors and related facilities will be fully implemented within one month of the date of this Document. During this one-month period, and throughout the freeze, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will be allowed to monitor this freeze, and the DPRK will provide full cooperation to the IAEA for this purpose.
-- Dismantlement of the DPRK's graphite-moderated reactors and related facilities will be completed when the LWR project is completed.
-- The U.S. and DPRK will cooperated in finding a method to store safely the spent fuel from the 5 MW(e) experimental reactor during the construction of the LWR project, and to dispose of the fuel in a safe manner that does not involve reprocessing in the DPRK.
4) As soon as possible after the date of this document. U.S. and DPRK experts will hold two sets of experts talks.
-- At one set of talks, experts will discuss issues related to alternative energy and the replacement of the graphite-moderated reactor program with the LWR project.
-- At the other set of talks, experts will discuss specific arrangements for spent fuel storage and ultimate disposition.
II. The two sides will move toward full normalization of political and economic relations.
1) Within three months of the date of this Document, both sides will reduce barriers to trade and investment, including restrictions on telecommunications services and financial transactions.
2) Each side will open a liaison office in the other's capital following resolution of consular and other technical issues through expert level discussions.
3) As progress is made on issues of concern to each side, the U.S. and DPRK will upgrade bilateral relations to the
III. Both sides will work together for peace and security on a nuclear-free Korean peninsula.
1) The U.S. will provide formal assurances to the DPRK, against the threat or use of nuclear weapons by the U.S.
2) The DPRK will consistently take steps to implement the North-South Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean peninsula.
3) The DPRK will engage in North-South dialogue, as this Agreed Framework will help create an atmosphere that promotes such dialogue.
IV. Both sides will work together to strengthen the international nuclear non-proliferation regime.
1) The DPRK will remain a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and will allow
implementation of its safeguards agreement under the Treaty.
2) Upon conclusion of the supply contract for the provision of the LWR project, ad hoc and routine inspections will resume under the DPRK's safeguards agreement with the IAEA with respect to the facilities not subject to the freeze. Pending conclusion of the supply contract, inspections required by the IAEA for the continuity of safeguards will continue at the facilities not subject to the freeze.
3) When a significant portion of the LWR project is completed, but before delivery of key nuclear components, the DPRK will come into full compliance with its safeguards agreement with the IAEA (INFCIRC/403), including taking all steps that may be deemed necessary by the IAEA, following consultations with the Agency with regard to verifying the accuracy and completeness of the DPRK's initial report on all nuclear material in the DPRK.
Kang Sok Ju- Head of the Delegation for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, First Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Robert L. Gallucci- Head of the Delegation of United States of America, Ambassador at Large of the United States of America
The following are the talking points used by US officials to explain the text up until the time it was released.
US-DPRK Talks: Press Themes
-- After sixteen months of negotiations, the United States and North Korea have reached an agreement that ends the recent threat of nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia and provides the basis for more normal relations between North Korea and the rest of the world.
-- This agreement serves the interests of our allies, South Korea and Japan, as well as the United States. It will bring greater security to this dangerous part of the world and contribute to our efforts to end nuclear proliferation globally. Here are its principal features:
-- First, it will bring the DPRK into full compliance with its non-proliferation obligations under the Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The DPRK affirms its NPT member status, commits to complying with its IAEA safeguards agreement, and states willingness to implement the South- North Denuclearization Declaration.
-- Second, it terminates the existing DPRK nuclear program. Activity at the DPRK's nuclear facilities (5 megawatt (MW) reactor, reprocessing facility, and 50 and 200 MW reactors now under construction) will remain frozen, under the supervision of IAEA inspectors. When light water reactors are nearing completion, North Korea will dismantle those facilities.
-- Third, it ensures safe disposition of the spent fuel now in North Korea. The DPRK will forego reprocessing, and instead will safely store and eventually ship the spent fuel out the country.
-- Fourth, it addresses the question of the past. The DPRK will accept special inspections or other steps deemed necessary by the IAEA before it receives any nuclear components for a light water reactor.
-- Lastly, this agreement will draw North Korea out of its dangerous isolation. It will help integrate Pyongyang into the economic and political mainstream of East Asia.
-- Our part of the bargain is straightforward. We will lead an international consortium which will oversee construction of two 1000 MW light water reactors of proliferation resistant design in the DPRK over the next decade. Funding will chiefly come from South Korea; Japan will also make a major contribution.
-- We and the DPRK will establish liaison offices in each other's capitals--something that will help us oversee the
implementation of this agreement and open a channel to deal with other issues that concern us.
-- We plan to reduce economic and financial restrictions selectively on US citizens' dealings with the DPRK, in close consultation with the Congress.
-- We will provide a "negative security assurance." It would pledge us not to use nuclear weapons against North Korea as long as it remains a member in good standing of the NPT regime. (We have provided similar assurances to other signatories of the NPT).
-- To compensate the DPRK for loss of energy production from further operation of its 5 MW reactor and from abandoning 50 and 200 MW reactors under construction, the consortium will provide the North 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil annually for use in a specific power plant (50,000 tons in the first three months, and 150,000 tons in the first year of the agreement).
-- This agreement attains all our goals, including the North's commitment to pursue South-North dialogue, without which there can be no permanent resolution of questions of peace and security on the Korean Peninsula.
-- We consulted our allies, Japan and South Korea, at every stage of this arduous negotiation, including frequent
conversations between the President and President Kim Young Sam. Korea and Japan's strong support has been essential to the success of the talks with North Korea. They are fully on board, and doubtless will have more to say themselves.
-- Secretary Perry will visit South Korea and Japan on October 20-22.
Related resources on this website include:
Background on U.S. - Korean Relations (timeline)
Bibliography on the North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program
return to PolS 128 supplements page
return to Prof. Bowen's main home page